The Cold War Era

The Cold War Era Overview This chapter provides a backdrop to the entire book. The end of the Cold War is usually seen as the beginning of the contemporary era in world politics which is the subject matter of this book. It is, therefore, appropriate that we begin the story with a discussion of the … Read more


  The theory of sets was developed by German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He first encountered sets while working on “problems on trigonometric series”.  Sets and their Representations  A set is a well-defined collection of objects.  The following points may be noted : (i) Objects, elements and members of a set are synonymous terms. (ii) … Read more


The story of the Buddha Siddhartha, also known as Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born about 2500 years ago. This was a time of rapid change in the lives of people. As you saw in Chapter 5, some kings in the mahajanapadas were growing more powerful. New cities were developing, and life was changing in the … Read more

World Health Day 2022 April 7

  World Health Day 2022 World Health Day is celebrated every year on 7th April to raise awareness about health. Worldld Health Day was started by the World Health Organization (WHO) which was first celebrated in 1948 at the World Health Assembly. And then it was decided that this World Health Day will be celebrated all … Read more

Subject Verb Agreement

In English the basic structure of a sentence is Subject + Verb + Object . Now for a sentence to be grammatically correct, the verb must agree with the subject. In the other words the verb used must be in accordance with the persons and the number of subject. In order to attend grammatically accuracy … Read more


How some men became rulers Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something that has become common during the last fifty years or so. How did men become rulers in the past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter 4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people. But, around 3000 years ago, we find some changes … Read more


You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or hear others talking about weather. You must know that weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You must have noticed that when it … Read more


     India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the Indian peninsula. The peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides … Read more