Chemical Reactions and Equations

  Chemical Reactions and Equations Consider the following situations of daily life and think what happens when – milk is left at room temperature during summers. an iron tawa/pan/nail is left exposed to humid atmosphere. grapes get fermented. food is cooked. food gets digested in our body. we respire. In all the above situations, the … Read more


  CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Activity 1.1 can be described as – when a magnesium ribbon is burnt in oxygen, it gets converted to magnesium oxide. This description of a chemical reaction in a sentence form is quite long. It can be written in a shorter form. The simplest way to do this is to write it in … Read more

Oxidation and Reduction

 Oxidation and Reduction Oxidation and Reduction The surface of copper powder becomes coated with black copper(II) oxide. Why has this black substance formed? This is because oxygen is added to copper and copper oxide is formed. If hydrogen gas is passed over this heated material (CuO), the black coating on the surface turns brown as … Read more

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

    Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Elements An element is a substance which can neither be broken nor built from two or more simple substances by any physical or chemical method. Or in the other words an element is  a pure substance which contains only one kinds of atom, e.g., Fe (Iron) , Na (sodium) … Read more

Lithium (Li)

  Lithium (Li ) 6.941 (g/mol) Latin name: Lithium English name: Lithium Year discovered: 1817 CAS Number: CAS7439-93-2 Discovered by: Johan August Arfwedson Cost per 100 grams: 8.65 USD  Electron shell: K2 L1 M0 N0 O0 P0 Q0 R0 Electrons: 3 Protons: 3 Neutrons: 4 Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. … Read more

Helium (He)

    Helium (He) Latin name: Helium English name: Helium Year discovered: 1895 CAS Number: CAS7440-59-7 Discovered by: Pierre Jules César Janssen                            Joseph Norman Lockyer Cost per 100 grams: 2.4 USD Electron shell: K2 L0 M0 N0 O0 P0 Q0 R0  Electrons: 2 … Read more

Separation of Mixtures

   Separation of Mixtures Separation of Mixtures Sublimation : In this process , a solid substance passes directly into its vapours on application of heat, and when vapours are cooled, they give back the original substance, e.g., iodine, napthalene, benzoic acid etc.  Sedimentation and Decanatation : This method is used when one component is liquid and the … Read more

Nucleic Acids

  Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleic acid are formed by the hydrolysis of nucleoproteins. There are two classes of nucleic acid  RNA – ribonucleic acids DNA – deoxyribonucleic acids Nucleic acid are polymers of nucleotides. Nucleotides is a phosphoric ester of nucleoside. Nucleoside are hydrolyzed by Aqueous ammonia at 175⁰ C to give nucleusides and phosphoric acid. Nucleosides contain Purine or pyrimidine bases and sugar, ribose or deoxyribose. These are adenosine, deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine, deoxycytidine, uridine, … Read more