Narrations – Direct speech & Indirect speech

Definition – 

When we express someone’s words in our own words, it is called Indirect Speech .
When will express someone’s words as it is called Direct Speech. 

Example
Direct – He said to me, “I write a letter”.
Indirect – He told me that he wrote a letter. 
Rules for changing ‘Direct Speech’ into ‘Indirect Speech’

1. Reporting verb is changed according to the form and sense of the sentence.
2. Inverted commas are removed in the indirect speech.
3. Connective word is used in the beginning of the reported speech.
4. Verb of the reported speech is changed according to the form and sense of the sentence.
5. Persons of the reported speech are changed.
6. Words showing nearness, time or place are changed.
1. Assertive Sentences

Rule 1. Rules for changing reporting verb.
Direct Indirect
Say,says(without object) No Change
Say to, says to (with object) Tell,Tells
Said (without object) No change
Said to (with object) Told
Rule 2. Comma and inverted commas are removed in the indirect speech and connective word ‘that’ is used in the indirect speech.
Rule 3. If reporting verb is written in the present or future tense then the tense of the reported verb is not changed in the indirect speech. 
Rule 4. Rules for changing helping verb

Direct Indirect
is, am was
are were
has, have had
shall, will would
can could
may might
do, does did
did had
must no change
should no change
had no change
would no change
could no change
Rule 5. Rules for change of words showing nearness.
Direct Indirect
this that
these those
here there
now/just then
today that day
yesterday the previous day
tomorrow the next day
tonight that night
last night the previous night
hence thence
Rule 6. Pronoun changes according to the following rule.
The pronoun of reported speech changes according to the subject and the object of the reporting verb.
Subject Object No
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
I, we you he,she,it,they
Case I : The first persons of reported speech changes according to the subject of reporting verb.
Direct – He said, “I play cricket.”
Indirect – He said that he played cricket.
Subject of reported speech ‘I’ first person is changed according to the subject of reporting verb ‘he’ 3rd person.
Case II : The second person of reported speech changes according to the object of reporting verb.
Direct – He said to me, ” you play cricket.”
Indirect – He told me that I played cricket.
In the above case  the subject ‘you’ second persons of reported speech is changed according to the object of reporting verb ‘me’ first person.
Case III : The third persons of reported speech reminds  unchanged.
Direct – you said to me, “He will play cricket.”
Indirect – you told me that he will play cricket.
In the above case the subject ‘he’ third person of reported speech is not changed.
2. Interrogative Sentences
Rule 1. Connective word ‘that’ is not used in the indirect speech.
Rule 2. Reporting verb is changed into ‘ask’ or ‘asked’ in the indirect speech.
Rule 3. Mark of integration (?) is removed in the indirect speech.
Direct – He said to me, “Are you studying ?”
Indirect – He asked me if I was studying.

3. Imperative Sentences
Rule 1. Reporting verb is changed into ordered, requested, advised,proposed,suggested or forbade etc.
Rule 2. Connective word ‘that’ is not used.
Rule 3. ‘To’ is used before the verb of the reported speech.
Direct – he said to the servant, ” open the door”.
Indirect – he ordered the servant to open the door.
4. Exclamatory and Optative Sentences
Rule 1. Reporting verb is changed into exclamatory with joy or with sorrow or with surprise, applauded,wished,prayed etc.
Rule 2. Word of exclamation , i.e., Hurrah, alas, ah,oh! Etc. are removed.
Rule 3. Mark of exclamation (!) is removed.
Rule 4. Connective word ‘that’ is used.
Direct – He said, “Alas! I am ruined.”
Indirect – He exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.


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