MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH

You must have seen some of the landform features as shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. These landforms are a result of … Read more

WHAT BOOKS AND BURIALS TELL US

One of the oldest books in the world You may have heard about the Vedas. There are four of them – the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda. The oldest Veda is the Rigveda, composed about 3500 years ago. The Rigveda includes more than a thousand hymns, called sukta or “well-said”. These hymns are in praise of various … Read more

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH

As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the only planet which has life. Human beings can live here because the life sustaining elements of land, water and air are present on the earth. The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which three main components of the environment meet, … Read more

IN THE EARLIEST CITIES

The story of Harappa Very often, old buildings have a story to tell. Nearly a hundred and fifty years ago, when railway lines were being laid down for the first time in the Punjab, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa in present-day Pakistan. To them, it seemed like a mound that was a rich … Read more

Motions Of The Earth

As you know that the earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution. The axis of the earth which is an imaginary line, makes an angle … Read more

FROM HUNTING–GATHERING TO GROWING FOOD

The earliest people: why were they on the move? We know about people who lived in the subcontinent as early as two million years ago. Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers. The name comes from the way in which they got their food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, … Read more

WHAT, WHERE, HOW AND WHEN?

Finding out what happened Yesterday: you could listen to the radio, watch television, read a newspaper. Last year: ask somebody who remembers. But what about long, long ago? Let us see how it can be done. What can we know about the past? There are several things we can find out — what people ate, … Read more