Present Tense

Present Tense

This tense expresses an action that is currently going on or habitually performed or a state that currently or generally exists. We can classify Present Tense into following four parts:

(i) Present Indefinite Tense

This tense is called present indefinite tense because in this tense the action is simply mentioned and nothing can be said about its completeness. This tense is used to express an action which occurs on regular basis.

Structure

For Singular

Affirmative = Sub + V1 + s/es + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + does not + V1 + Obj.

Interrogative = Does + Sub + V1 + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Does + Sub + not + V1 + Obj + ?

Example

She writes a letter.
She does not write a letter.
Does she write a letter ?
Does she not write a letter ?

For Plural

Affirmative = Sub + V1 + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + do not + V1 + Obj.

Interrogative = Do + Sub + V1 + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Do + Sub + not + V1 + Obj + ? 

Example

They play cricket.
They do not play cricket.
Do they play cricket ?
Do they not play cricket ?

I is treated as plural in Present Tense. 

Uses

1. To show Habitual Actions.
2. To show General truth / Universal truth / Permanent truth etc.
3. To show Imperative Sentences.
4. In exclamatory sentences which start with’Here’and’There’.
5. In newspaper headlines and commentary of sports.
6. To describe the events that occurred in past in a dramatic way.
7. This tense is also used to express professional activities.

(ii) Present Continuous Tense

This tense is used to express action that is currently in progress.

Structure

For Singular

Affirmative = Sub + is + V1 + ing + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + is not + V1 + ing + Obj.

Interrogative = Is + Sub + V1 + ing + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Is + Sub + not + V1 + ing + Obj + ?

Example

She is singing a song.
She is not singing a song.
Is she singing a song ?
Is she not singing a song ?

For Plural

Affirmative = Sub + are + V1 + ing + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + are not + V1 + ing + Obj.

Interrogative = Are + Sub + V1 + ing + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Are + Sub + not + V1 + ing + Obj + ?

Example

They are playing cricket.
They are not playing cricket.
Are they playing cricket ?
Are they not playing cricket ?

Am is used as  helping verb with I.

Uses

1. To show a Continuous action.
2. To show those actions which have following words
” Now , these day, now a days, still , at this time, at this moment, at present. “
3. To denote a change of present state/ situation into another.
4. To show those events/ actions that will take place in near future. 

(iii) Present Perfect Tense

This tense is used to express those actions that have been finished recently.

Structure

For Singular

Affirmative = Sub + has + V3  + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + has not + V3 + Obj.

Interrogative = Has + Sub + V3 + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Has + Sub + not + V3 + Obj + ?

Example 

She has bought a house.

She has not bought a house.

Has she bought a house ? 

Has she not bought a house ? 

For Plural

Affirmative = Sub + have + V3  + Obj.

Nagative = Sub + have not + V3 + Obj.

Interrogative = Have + Sub + V3 + Obj + ?

Negative Interrogative = Have + Sub + not + V3 + Obj + ?

Example 

They have completed their work.

They have not completed their work.

Have they completed their work ? 

Have they not completed their work ? 

I used as plural in this type of tense.

Uses 

1. To show the action that has just ended.

2. In sentences which consist the following: ” This/That/it is the first/second/third/best/ worst.”

3. To show those sentences which have the following words. ” Alright,so far, as yet, upto now, recently, ever, lately”.

Generally, present perfect tense does not take an Adverb of past time. 


(iv) Present Perfect Continuous Tense

This type of tense is used to express those actions that had begun in the past and are still in progress.

Structure

For Singular

Affirmative = Sub + has been + V1 ing  + Obj + since/for + time being.

Nagative = Sub + has not been + V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being.

Interrogative = Has + Sub + been + V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being + ?

Negative Interrogative = Has + Sub + not + been+  V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being + ?

Example 

Ram has been living here since 1940.

Ram has not been living here since 1940.

Has Ram been living here for last ten years ?

Has Ram not been living here since 1940 ?

For Plural

Affirmative = Sub + have been + V1 ing  + Obj + since/for + time being.

Nagative = Sub + have not been + V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being.

Interrogative = Have + Sub + been + V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being + ?

Negative Interrogative = Have + Sub + not + been+  V1 ing + Obj + since/for + time being + ?

I is used as plural in this tense.

Example

They have been singing since morning.

They have not been singing since morning.

Have they been singing since morning ? 

Have they not been singing since morning ?

Uses

1. To show those actions that had begun in the past and are still in progress.

2. It can be used with time phrases like- ” for, since, long , how long, all the time, all week , etc.”

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