Separation of Mixtures

 

 Separation of Mixtures

Separation of Mixtures
Separation of Mixtures

  1. Sublimation : In this process , a solid substance passes directly into its vapours on application of heat, and when vapours are cooled, they give back the original substance, e.g., iodine, napthalene, benzoic acid etc. 
  2. Sedimentation and Decanatation : This method is used when one component is liquid and the other is insoluble solid.
  3. Crystallization: This method is based on the difference in solubility of the various compounds in a solvent , e.g.,  mixture of KNO3 , and NaCl can be separated by this process.
  4. Filtration: It is uses for quick and complete removal of solid suspended particles from a liquid (or gas) by passing the suspension through a filter.
  5. Evaporation : In this method the solution is  heated so that the solvent vaporises to given the solute (solid substance ) e.g., salt can be obtained from salt solution .
  6. Distillation : A mixture of two substances , only one of which is volatile , can be separated by this process, e.g., NaCl can be separated from water by distillation.
  7. Fractional Distillation : This process is used if both the component of a mixture are volatile . It is based on the difference of boiling points. e.g., the various fractions of crude petroleum can be separated by this process.
  8. Steam Distillation : It is used to separate a liquid  (should be immiscible with water) from a mixture by heating with steam. e.g., lemon oil , toluene, nitrobenzene ect.
  9. Mechanical Separation: Two  immiscible liquids can be separated by using a separatory funnel e.g., oil and water.
  10. Magnetic Separation : Two soli one of which is magnetic substance can be separated by this method .
  11. Atmolysis : In this process a mixture of gases can be separated based on their rates of diffusion . e.g., Isotops of uranium (U235 and U238) are separated by converting into gaseous UF6.
  12. Chromatography : This is the most versatile separation method which can be applied to solid , liquid or gas. In this method the components of a mixture are adsorbed on a suitable adsorbent at different rates and thus get separated . e.g., to separate coloured materials from dyes , green vegetables, ink etc

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