Separation of Mixtures
|Separation of Mixtures|
- Sublimation : In this process , a solid substance passes directly into its vapours on application of heat, and when vapours are cooled, they give back the original substance, e.g., iodine, napthalene, benzoic acid etc.
- Sedimentation and Decanatation : This method is used when one component is liquid and the other is insoluble solid.
- Crystallization: This method is based on the difference in solubility of the various compounds in a solvent , e.g., mixture of KNO3 , and NaCl can be separated by this process.
- Filtration: It is uses for quick and complete removal of solid suspended particles from a liquid (or gas) by passing the suspension through a filter.
- Evaporation : In this method the solution is heated so that the solvent vaporises to given the solute (solid substance ) e.g., salt can be obtained from salt solution .
- Distillation : A mixture of two substances , only one of which is volatile , can be separated by this process, e.g., NaCl can be separated from water by distillation.
- Fractional Distillation : This process is used if both the component of a mixture are volatile . It is based on the difference of boiling points. e.g., the various fractions of crude petroleum can be separated by this process.
- Steam Distillation : It is used to separate a liquid (should be immiscible with water) from a mixture by heating with steam. e.g., lemon oil , toluene, nitrobenzene ect.
- Mechanical Separation: Two immiscible liquids can be separated by using a separatory funnel e.g., oil and water.
- Magnetic Separation : Two soli one of which is magnetic substance can be separated by this method .
- Atmolysis : In this process a mixture of gases can be separated based on their rates of diffusion . e.g., Isotops of uranium (U235 and U238) are separated by converting into gaseous UF6.
- Chromatography : This is the most versatile separation method which can be applied to solid , liquid or gas. In this method the components of a mixture are adsorbed on a suitable adsorbent at different rates and thus get separated . e.g., to separate coloured materials from dyes , green vegetables, ink etc