Subject Verb Agreement

In English the basic structure of a sentence is Subject + Verb + Object .

Now for a sentence to be grammatically correct, the verb must agree with the subject. In the other words the verb used must be in accordance with the persons and the number of subject.
In order to attend grammatically accuracy Some rules must followed which are as follows
Rule 1 : if two subjects are joined by ‘and‘ and they denote two separate entities or ideas, plural what will be used.
Ex – Ravi and Rakesh are playing.
Rule 2 : If two or more nouns or adjectives are joined by ‘and‘ but they did not a single person/ thing idea , singular verb is used.
Ex – Bread and butter, is my favourite breakfast.
Rule 3: If the subjects are joined by expressions like ” alongwith, with, as well as, in addition to, besides, nothing, unlike, like, no less than etc” the verb that follows agrees with the first subject.
Ex – Rohan as well as his friends is playing.
Rule 4 : If two subjects are joined by “either….or, neither….nor, nor, or, not only….but also” the verb agrees with the subject nearest to it.
Ex – Neither Ram nor Rohan is coming today. 
Rule 5 : Neither of, either of, none of” etc are followed by plural noun and singular verb.
Ex – Either of you watch absent from the class.
Rule 6 : sometimes Words like “somebody, everybody, each, nobody, anybody, everybody, everyone, anything, nothing, every” are used as subject. In such case singular verb agrees with them. 
Ex – Nothing is impossible if you have determination.
Rule 7 : If following expressions are followed by uncountable noun. We use singular verb with them.
Most of, half of, son of, enough of, plenty of, a lot of” 
Ex – Some milk is needed.
Rule 8 : Similarly if following expressions are followed by countable noun we use plural verb with them.
Most of, half of, son of, enough of, plenty of, a lot of” 
Ex – Most of the boys were absent.
Rule 9 :More than one” is followed by singular countable noun and singular verb.
Ex – more than one boy was absent.
But “more than two/three/four” is followed by plural noun and plural verb.
Ex – More than 10 houses were damage in the flood.
Similarly, sentences with following structure used plural verb.
Ex – More books than one are new.
Rule 10 : Following expressions are followed by plural noun and plural verb.
A large number of, a number of, a great number of, large number of
Ex – A number of boys are playing cricket.
But ‘the number of‘ is always followed by singular verb.
Ex – The number of children is 20. 
Rule 11:  We use plural subject and plural verb with the following
Many, A grade many, A good many, many of, a great many of, a good many of, both, several, various, both of , several of, various of, few, a few, very few, few of, very few of” 

Ex – Many of the girls are taking parts in the contest.
But “many a” is followed by singular noun and singular verb.
Ex – Many a car has been stolen.
Rule 12 : If we use ‘the‘ before any adjective, than plural verb is used
i.e., the weak, the reach, the poor, the honest, the injured, the dumb, the French etc are all used as plural subject.
Ex – The rich are not always happy.
Rule 13 : If ‘nothing but/everything but‘ each followed by uncountable noun or countable noun singular verb is used. 
Ex – Nothing but birds was seen.
Rule 14 : ‘One of the‘ is always followed by plural noun and its agreed with singular verb.
Ex – One of the girls is crying.
Rule 15 : if there is any definite unit/distance/ height etc. Followed by the construction : Numeral + Plural Noun , then the verb is always singular.
Ex – Ten thousand rupees is a good amount.
But, if it refers to different units in the constructions of numerical adjective + plural noun, then it takes a plural verb.
Ex – Twelve hundred rupees have been spend on shopping.
Rule 16 : if who/which/that is to used as a relative pronoun, then the verb that follows depends on the antecedent
Ex – I, who am a cricketer, play here.
       The man who was sitting here, is my father.
Rule 17 : with expressions like if/ as if / as though/ i wish etc only ‘were‘ form of ‘ to be ‘ is used.
Ex – I wish, I were the president of India.
      If I were you, I would have finished the work.
Rule 18 : If an article is placed before two nouns, it means the person/thing is the same for which two nouns are used.
Ex – Mr. Sharma, the chairman and managing director of the company, has arrived.
Here single article the  is placed before chairman and managing director. It means that Mr Sharma is both the chairman and managing director of the company.

But if an article is used before every noun. Then the noun refer to different persons. 
Ex – The director and the producer have come.
Rule 19 : ‘All‘ can be used in both ‘countable‘ and ‘uncountable‘. When used as uncountable we use singular verb, and when used as countable it takes plural verb.
Ex – All is good now a days.
Rule 20 : Whenever ‘amount of/quantity of’ each followed by an uncountable noun, singular verb follows.
Ex – The amount of milk is sufficient.
Rule 21 : Some nouns exist only in plural form. Search nouns are : scissors, tongs, pliers, trousers, pants,pajamas, shorts, sunglasses, gallows, riches, savings, congratulations, regards, Alms, wages, belongings, troops, tactics etc.
Ex – His new sunglasses are quite expensive.
Rule 22 : some nouns like scenery, poetry, furniture, hair, business, mischief, information, luggage, work, traffic, stationery, equipment, evidence, electricity, behaviour, crockery etc are uncountable. Hen singular verb is used with them. 
Ex – The furniture that I bought yesterday is really comfortable.
Rule 23 : some nouns like economics, ethics, mathematics, rickets etc are plural in form but singular in meaning. Hence, they take singular verb.
Ex – Economics is easy subject.
But, if the about plural looking subjects are particularised or passessed, they become plural nouns and the verb that follows is also plural.
Ex – Politics is a dirty game.
Since the above statement describe politics in a General form. Therefore the verb is that follows is also singular.
Ex – Politics of our country are dirty.
Here politics has been particularised; hence plural verb has been used.
Rule 24 : Similarly there are some nouns like cattle, cavalry, infantry, children, gentry etc. that are singular in form but plural in meaning. Hence they take plural verb.
 Ex – Cattle are grazing in the field.
Rule 25 : Collective nouns always take singular verb.
Ex – The bundle of sticks is heavy.

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